Validity: Comparing the LexTALE to other measures

In a large-scale study (Lemhöfer & Broersma, 2012 ) on Dutch and Korean advanced learners of English, the LexTALE was evaluated as a measure of English vocabulary knowledge, and as an indicator of general English proficiency. Further, LexTALE scores were compared to performance on two types of psycholinguistic experiments.

LexTALE and vocabulary knowledge

To assess the LexTALE as a measure of vocabulary knowledge, the results of the LexTALE were compared with L1-L2 and L2-L1 translation tests - arguably the most face-valid test of L2 vocabulary knowledge. LexTALE scores were found to correlate highly with and to be good predictors of translation performance. This shows that the LexTALE gives a good indication of English vocabulary knowledge.

LexTALE and general language proficiency

To assess the LexTALE as a measure of general language proficiency, the results of the LexTALE were compared with those of the Quick Placement Test (QPT) and the TOEIC test, which are extensive, thorough, tests of English proficiency. The correlations between LexTALE and QPT and TOEIC were, of course, lower than those between LexTALE and translation performance, but they were still substantial and highly significant. Thus, even though the LexTALE was not designed to fully capture general English proficiency, it can nevertheless be taken to give an indication of it.

LexTALE and experimental word recognition data

The data of earlier work were re-analyzed to assess the relation between the LexTALE and experimental word recognition data. LexTALE scores correlated substantially with error rates and RTs in two English lexical decision experiments carried out with native speakers of Dutch (Lemhöfer & Dijkstra, 2004 ). LexTALE scores were also correlated with the reaction times in an English lexical decision progressive demasking task, involving native speakers of German, Dutch, and French (Lemhöfer et al., 2008 ). Thus, LexTALE scores were well correlated both with data from a task rather similar to the LexTALE itself, and with data from a rather different experimental paradigm.


Lemhöfer, K., & Broersma, M. (2012). Introducing LexTALE: A quick and valid Lexical Test for Advanced Learners of English. Behavior Research Methods, 44, 325-343.

Lemhöfer, K., & Dijkstra, T. (2004). Recognizing cognates and interlingual homographs: Effects of code similarity in language-specific and generalized lexical decision. Memory & Cognition, 32, 533-550.

Lemhöfer, K., Dijkstra, T., Schriefers, H., Baayen, R. H., Grainger, J., & Zwitserlood, P. (2008). Native language influences on word recognition in a second language: A megastudy. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 12-31.